Let us start the history of kashmir from It's name,it is believed that it got it's name after Kashmir valley formation by Kashyapa Rishi ( son of Marichi, son of Brahma) by cutting the gap in the hills at Baramulla (Varaha-mula).Kashmir has more than 5400 years of history and name “Kashmir” means “desiccated land” (Sanskrit: Ka = water and shimeera = desiccate).During Mahabharata era, Kambojas ruled Kashmir during the epic period with a Republican system of government from the capital city of Karna-Rajapuram-gatva-Kambojah-nirjitastava, shortened to Rajapura, which is modern Rajauri.Peer Panjal, which is a part of modern Kashmir, is a witness to this fact. Panjal is simply a distorted form of the Sanskritic tribal term Panchala. Muslims prefixed the word peer to it in memory of Siddha Faqir and the name thereafter is said to have changed into Peer Panjal.History behind name of JammuJammu was founded by Hindu King Raja Jambu Lochan in the 14th century BCE. During one of his hunting campaigns he reached the Tawi River where he saw a goat and a lion drinking water at the same place. The king was impressed and decided to set up a town after his name, Jamboo. With the passage of time, the name was corrupted and became “Jammu“.Authentic sources of Kashmir history are Nilmata Purana (complied c. 500–600 CE) and Rajatarangini (1150 CE).Kalhana’s Rajatarangini (River of Kings), has all the 8000 Sanskrit verses of which were completed by 1150 CE, and chronicles the history of Kashmir’s dynasties from Mahabharata times to 12th century CE (4600 years of history and complete list of Kashmir Kings).During the reign of Muslim kings in Kashmir, three supplements to Rajatarangini were written by Jonaraja (1411–1463 CE), Srivara, and Prajyabhatta and Suka, which end with Akbar’s conquest of Kashmir in 1586 CE.[General view of Martand Sun Temple and Enclosure of Marttand or the Sun, near Bhawan. Probable date of temple AD 490–555. Probable date of colonnade AD 693–729.]List of Kashmir Kings from 3450 BCEThis list and timings are derived from Rajatarangini.1-5. Names not known 3450-3238 BCE1. Gonanda I 3238-3188 BCE2. Damodara I 3188-3140 BCE3. Yasovati (Damodara I’s wife) 3140-3139½ BCE4. Gonanada II (Yasovati’s son) 3139½-3083 BCE5. Parikshit 3083-3041 BCE6. Harnadeva7. Rama deva8. Vyasadeva9. Drunadeva10. Simhadeva11. Gopaladeva12. Vijayananda13. Sukhadeva14. Ramananda15. Sandhiman16. Marahandeva & Kamandeva.17. Chandradeva18. Anandadeva19. Drupadadeva20. Harnamdeva21. Sulkandeva22. Sinaditya23. Mangaladitya24. Khimendra25. Bhimasena26. Indrasena27. Sundarasena28. Galgendra29. Baladeva30. Nalasena31. Gokarna32. Prahlada33. Bambru34. Pratapaseela35. Sangrama chandra36. Larik chandra37. Biramchamdra33. Babighana39. BhagavantaGonanda I was relative of Magadha ruler Jarasandha and contemporary to Yudhishtir. He was killed by Krishna’s elder brother Balarama.His son Damodara I was killed by Krishna and his army. Later Krishna made his wife Yasovati as temporary ruler for 6 months, who was succeeded by her son Gonanda II.This Gonanda II was Killed in a battle with Parikshit (grandson of Arjuna), king of Hastinapura in 3083 BCE.As Gonanda II has no heir, Parikshit took over the kingdom of Kashmir, incorporated it into his empire and handed it over to Harnadeva, who was from his family.From Harnadeva, PANDAVA dynasty kings ruled over Kashmir for 1331 years from 3083-1752 BCE.40. Lava 1752-1713 BCE41. Kusa or Kusesaya 1713-1674 BCE42. Khagendra 1674-1635 BCE43. Surendra (Issueless) 1635-1596 BCE44. Godhara (Another family) 1596-1557 BCE45. Suvarna 1557-1518 BCE46. Janaka 1518-1479 BCE47. Sachinara (His Paternal uncle was Sakuni’s great grandson) 1479-1447 BCE48. Asoka or Dharmasoka (Gonanda Dynasty) 1448-1400 BCEHe lost his kingdom, as Mlechchas occupied it and he fled to forest. His son Jaelauka reconquered it)49. Jaelauka 1400-1344 BCE50. Damodara II 1344-1294 BCE50. Hushka, Jushka and Kanishka 1294-1234 BCE52. Abhimanyu 1234-1182 BCEDharmasoka built Srinagar, capital of Kashmir during 1448-1400 BCEGonanda I was a poet. Dharmasoka, who belonged to the Gonanda dynasty, freed himself from sins by embracing Buddhism and built the city of Srinagar, with ninety-six lakhs of houses, resplendent with wealth.He too was a poet.Dynasty of Gonanada III. From 1182 BCE to 272 BCE – Total 910 years53. Gonanda III 1182-1147 BCE54. Vibhishana 1147-1092½ BCE55. Indrajit 1092½-1057 BCE56. Ravana 1057-1027 BCE57. Vibhishana II 1027-991½ BCE58. Kinnara or Nara 991½-952 BCE59. Siddha 952-892 BCE60. Utpalaksha 892-861½ BCE61. Hiranyaksha 861½-824 BCE62. Hiranyakula 824-764 BCE63. Vasukula 764-704 BCE64. Mihirakula 704-634 BCE65. Baka 634-594 BCE66. Kshitinamdana 594-564 BCE67. Vasunamdana (Poet) 564-512 BCEThis Vasunandana was a poet and author of Samara Sastra.68. Nara 512-477 BCE69. Aksha 477-417 BCE70. Gopaditya 417-357 BCEThis Gopaditya built the temple of Adi Sankara in 367-366 BCE. He founded several temples and Agraharams. He was also a poet.71. Gokarna 357-322 BCE72. Kinkhila or Narendraditya 322-285 BCE73. Andha Yudhistira 285-272 BCE(He was called Andha Yudhistira by the people, because of his having small eyes. In fact he was not blind.)Dynasty of Pratapaditya (272 to 80 BCE – Total 192 years with 6 kings)74. Pratapaditya 272-240 BCE75. Jalaukasa 240-208 BCE76. Tunjina 208-172 BCE77. Vijaya 172-164 BCE78. Jayendra 164-127 BCE79. Sandhimati 127-80 BCEThis 74th king Pratapaditya is mentioned in Rajatarangini as a relative of Vikramaditya, was brought by the ministers from a distant land and placed on the Kashmir throne. He ruled Kashmir from 272 to 240 BCE.Vikramaditya referred to here must be Sri Harsha Vikramaditya of Ujjain from 457 BCE. Kalhana says that this Vikramaditya, the relative of the Pratapaditya was not the Sakari Vikramaditya from 57 BCE.80. Meghavahana 80-46 BCE81. Pravarasena or Sreshtasena or Tunjina 46-16 BCE82. Hiranya 16 BCE – 14 CEThis Hiranya died issueless. He was elder brother of Toramana, who along with his wife and son were in exile.83. Matrigupta 14 – 19 CEHe was sent by Emperor Vikramaditya of Ujjain as King of Kashmir.84. Pravarasena II (Toramana’s son ) 19-79 CE85. Yudhistira II 79-118 CE(This Yudhistira II was contemporary to Salivahana, founder of the Era 78 CE)86. Lakshmana (Narendraditya) 118-131 CE87. Tunjina or Ranaditya (Poet) 131-173 CE87. Vikramaditya 173-215 CE89. Baladitya 215-252 CEKarkota Dynasty Kings of Kashmir90. Durlabha vardhana (Son-in-law of Baladitya) 252-288 CE91. Durlabhaka or Pratipaditya 288-338 CE92. Chandrapeeda or Varnaditya 338-397 CE93. Tarapida or Udayaditya 397-431 CE94. Lalitaditya or Mukatapida(Poet) 431-467 CEThis Lalitaditya built the famous Martanda (Sun) temple in Kashmir.95. Kuvalayaditya 467-468 CE96. Vajraditya or Bapyayika or Lalitapida 468-525 CE97. Prithivyapida 525-569 CE98. Sangramapida 569 CE(ruled only for 7 days)99. Jayapida (Pandit and poet) 569-620 CE100. Lalitapida 620-672 CE101. Sangramapida II 672-729 CE102. Chipyata-Jayapida 729-781 CE103. Ajitapida 781-837 CE104. Anangapida 837-840 CE105. Utpalapida 840-845 CE106. Sukhavarma 845-852 CETotal 17 kings ruled for 600 years[ Martand Sun Temple Central shrine, dedicated to the deity Surya. The temple complex was built by the third ruler of the Karkota dynasty, Lalitaditya Muktapida, in the 8th century CE. It is one of the largest temple complex on the Indian Subcontinent. ]Utpala Dynasty Kings of Kashmir107. Avantivarma 852-880 CE(In his court f1ourished many poets like Anandavardhan, Ratanakara)108. Sankaravarma 880-900 CE(Contemporary to Lalya Sahi, Brahmin king of the Yavanas in Uttara Jyotisha, Divya Kataka and Simhapura, now part of Afghanistan)109. Gopalavarma (minor, whose mother Sugandha ruled) 900-902 CE110. Sankata111. Sugandha112. Suravarma 902-904 CE (all 3 ruled for 2 years only)113. Partha 904-918 CE114. Nirjitavarma 918-920 CE115. Chakravarma (assassinated) 920-934 CE116. Unmattavanti 934-936 CEThese 8 Kings ruled for 84 years.Gupta Brahmin Kings Dynasty of Kashmir117. Yasaskara 936-945½ CE118. Varnata (1 month)119. Sangramadeva (5 months) 945½-946 CE120. Parvagupta 946-948 CE121. Kshemagupta 948-957 CE122. Abhimanyugupta 957-971 CE(Abhimanyu was a minor, ruled by mother Didda or Diththa Devi, wife of Kshemagupta. Didda was contemporary to Bhima Sahi of Kabul, descendent of Lalya Sahi. Didda was grand daughter of Bhima Sahi(Daughter’s daughter)123. Nandigupta (second son of Didda) 971-972 CE124. Tribhuvanagupta (3rd son of Didda) 972-974 CE125. Bhima gupta (4th son of Didda) 974-979 CEAll sons were minors. So, ruled by mother Didda126. Didda or Diththa, herself reigned 979-1012 CE(Didda was daughter of Simharaja of Lohar and wife of Kshemagupta)This Lohar family belongs to the Andhra Satavahana dynasty. This Simharaja, father of Didda, is the son-in—law of Bhima Sahi of Kabul who belonged to the Thomara Dynasty, one of the four Agni Vamsi.These ten Brahmin kings ruled for 76 years.Lohar Dynasty rulers of Kashmir127. Sangramaraja 1012-1027 CEHe is brother’s son of Didda; contemporary to Trilochana Pala of Kabul128. Hariraja 22 days only129. Anantadeva 1027-1062 & 1062-1078 CEAnantadeva was dethroned for few days in 1062 CE, but came back.130. Kalasa or Ranaditya (Pandit and Poet) 1078-1088 CE131. Utkarsha (few days only)132. Harsha 1088-1110 CEThese six kings of Lohar Dynasty ruled for 98 years.Agni Vamsa or Brahma-Kshatra Kings of Kashmir133. Uchchla (few days)134. Sankaraja 1110-1120 CE135. Sussala 1120-1128 CE136. Jayasimha 1128-1148 CEKalhana’s time is 1148 CE.4593-1148 = 345O BCEThat means, from 3450 BCE we have the history of Kashmir for 4593 years and then till today, which is 5467 years.Kalhana’s father was a tributary to the king of Kashmir, besides being the Prime Minister. This family might have been a branch of the Satavahana dynasty.Earliest Neolithic sites in the flood plains of Kashmir valley are dated to c. 3000 BCE. Most important of these sites are the settlements at Burzahom, which had two Neolithic and one Megalithic phases.This proves the history of Kashmir for almost 5000 years.Lohar dynasty (1012–1320 CE) paved the way for foreign invasions of Kashmir. Suhadeva, last king of the Lohara dynasty, fled Kashmir after Zulju (Dulacha), a Turkic–Mongol chief, led a savage raid on Kashmir.Rinchana, a Tibetan Buddhist refugee in Kashmir, established himself as the ruler after Zulju.Rinchana’s conversion to Islam is a subject of Kashmiri folklore. He was persuaded to accept Islam by his minister Shah Mir, probably for political reasons.From the 14th century, Islam gradually became the dominant religion in Kashmir. The Sultans between 1354–1470 CE were tolerant of other religions with the exception of Sultan Sikandar (1389–1413 CE). Sultan Sikandar imposed taxes on non–Muslims, forced conversions to Islam, and earned the title But–Shikan for destroying idols.Later, Mughals (1580s–1750s),[Gateway of enclosure, (once a Hindu temple) of Zein-ul-ab-ud-din's Tomb, in Srinagar. Probable date AD 400 to 500, 1868.]Afghan rulers (1750s–1819), Sikhs (1820–1846 CE) ruled over Kashmir.[Sheikh Imam-ud-din along with Ranjur Singh and Dewan Dina Nath. 1847. (James Duffield Harding) Sheikh Imam-ud-din was the governor of Kashmir under the Sikhs, and fought on the side of the English in the battle of Multan during the First Anglo-Sikh War (1845–46).]Between 1846-1947 CE, there was Princely State of Kashmir and Jammu (Dogra Rule).[The bridge at Baramullah in 1900][Nehru visiting the Women's Militia in 1947-48 with their leader, Begum Zainab. Sankharachrya Hill is visible in the background.][Shown in green is the Kashmiri region of Pakistan (POK). The dark-brown region is a part of Indian-administered Kashmir while the Aksai Chin was annexed by China, the Chinese control being tacitly accepted by Pakistan. Area in the North Kashmir region has been ceded by Pakistan to China.][Children making the famous Kashmiri carpets]Sources:- List of Kashmir Kings since 3450 BCE - History19 Old Pictures Of Kashmir That Will Show You How The Times Have ChangedHistory of Kashmir - WikipediaUnfortunately we don't study all this history in our schools. (coz our education sysytem got distorted since pre-british era)It all looks like a heavenly place has been turned into hell with passage of time.Hope history reverses soon !!